3a. Jihad & Offensive Jihad

Jihad

The Arabic word Jihad is derived from the verb Jahada – meaning to strive or struggle. The widely respected Dictionary of Islam defines Jihad as “A religious war with those who are unbelievers in the mission of Muhammad. It is an incumbent religious duty, established in the Qur’an and in the Traditions as a divine institution, and enjoined specially for the purpose of advancing Islam and of repelling evil from Muslims…
Qur’an commands Muslims to fight unbelievers in the way of Allah to spread Islam and Islamic rule against unbelievers. Jihad is a religious holy war which guarantees paradise to Muslims if they fight and die in Allah’s cause and become martyrs. A Muslim engaged in jihad is called a mujahid, the plural of which is mujahideen. Jihad is an important religious duty for Muslims. According to Yoel Natan, “jihad” appears in 164 verses in the Qur’an. Some Muslim scholars unofficially refer to this duty as the sixth pillar of Islam. In the Islamic history, more than 80% of the texts are filled with Holy War (Jihad). Early Islam was spread in the Arabian Peninsula solely by holy wars (Jihad). Islam was propagated as a religion by series of wars/battles – both defensive as well as offensive. As many as 78 historic battles were fought by the Prophet Muhammad himself. And out of 78, only one (battle of ditch) was defensive war, and the rest were simply offensive wars. Did Muslim soldiers go to Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Egypt to fight defensive war? It is clear that Muhammad, and then his successors, Caliph Abu Bakr, Caliph Umar, Caliph Uthman and Caliph Ali all attacked the surrounding nations offensively for the purpose of spreading Islam. These were not as is claimed by the historical revisionists, defensive wars. They were offensive wars whose goal was to force the victims to submit to Islam or be “crushed.”

There is no consensus on the types of Jihad. According to Ibn al-Qayyim, jihad is of four kinds: jihad an-nafs (jihad against one’s self), jihad ash-Shaytan (jihad against Satan), jihad against the kuffar and jihad against the hypocrites.

Ibn Khaldun, the famous 14th century Islamic historian and philosopher in his classic and most notable work, the Muqaddimah says of jihad:
In the Muslim community, the holy war is a religious duty, because of the universalism of the (Muslim) mission and (the obligation to) convert everybody to Islam either by persuasion or by force. Therefore, the caliphate (spiritual), the royal (government and military) authority are united in Islam, so that the person in charge can devote the available strength to both of them at the same time.

There are many types of jihad. All these are obligatory for every Muslim. They are as follows:

1. Jihad al-nafs – Fighting/Striving against one’s inner self.
2. Jihad al-Shaitan – Fighting against Satan.
3. Jihad al-munafiqeen – Fighting against the hypocrites.
4. Jihad al-faasiqeen – Fighting against other corrupt Muslims.
5. Jihad al-kuffaar – Fighting against the infidels/non-Muslims.
6. Jihad al-bi-L-sayf – Fighting with swords/weapons.
7. Jihad al-Tarbiya – Fighting for education.
8. Jihad al-Da’awa – Fighting to spread Islamic values.
9. Jihad al-Mal – Fighting with one’s wealth in the path of Allah.

Q4:95 – Not equal are those believers who sit at home and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of God with their goods and their persons. God has granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons, than to those who sit at home. To all has God promised good, but He favors those who strive and fight, above those who sit at home, with a special reward…

Q61:4 – Surely, God loves those who fight for His cause in ranks, as if they were a solid cemented structure.

Q4:74-75 – Let it be known that only those people should fight in the cause of Allah who are willing to exchange the life of this world for the Hereafter; and whoever fights for the cause of Allah, whether he dies or is victorious, will soon be granted a mighty reward.

Q2:216 – Fighting has been made obligatory for you, much to your dislike. It is quite possible that something which you don’t like is good for you and that something which you love is bad for you. Allah knows, and you do not.

Q3:157-158 – If you should die or get killed in the cause of Allah, His forgiveness and mercy will be far better than all the riches you could gather.

Q8:15-16 – Believers, when you meet the disbelievers in battle, never turn your backs on them: if anyone does so on such a day- unless maneuvring to fight or to join a fighting group- he incurs the wrath of God, and Hell will be his home, a wretched destination!

Q9:14 – Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands and disgrace them and give you victory over them and heal the breasts of a believing people.

Q9:20 – Those who believed and emigrated and carried out Jihad in the way of Allah with their wealth and lives are greater in rank in the sight of Allah, and it is they who are the successful.

Q9:38-39 – Believers, why, when it is said to you, ‘Go and fight in God’s way,’ do you feel weighed down to the ground? Do you prefer this world to the life to come? How small the enjoyment of this world is, compared with the life to come! If you do not go out and fight, God will punish you severely and put others in your place, but you cannot harm Him in any way: God has power over all things.

Q9:41 – Go out to fight, whatever your circumstances or desires, and do jihad with your wealth and yourselves in the Way of Allah. That is better for you if you only knew.

Q9:73 – O Prophet! Strive hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites and be unyielding to them; and their abode is hell, and evil is the destination.

Q3:169 – And never think of those who have been killed in the cause of Allah as dead. Rather, they are alive with their Lord, receiving provision.”

Q8:65 – 0 Prophet, urge believers on to fight! If there are twenty disciplined men among you, they will overcome two hundred, while if there are a hundred of you, they will defeat a thousand of those who disbelieve, since those are folk who do not understand.

Q2:244 – And fight in the cause of Allah and know that Allah is Hearing and Knowing.

Q25:52 – So do not listen to the disbelievers and, with this Qur’an, fight a great war against them.

Q3:195 – …those who emigrated and were driven out from their homes, and suffered harm in My Cause, and who fought, and were killed (in My Cause), verily, I will remit from them their evil deeds and admit them into Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise); a reward from Allah, and with Allah is the best of rewards.

Q4:101 – … When you travel in the earth, there is no blame on you if you shorten your prayers, especially when you fear that the unbelievers may attack you, since the unbelievers are your open enemies.

Q4:104 – And dont be weak in the pursuit of the enemy; if you are suffering (hardships) then surely, they (too) are suffering (hardships) as you are suffering, but you have a hope from Allah (for the reward, i.e. Paradise) that for which they hope not, and Allah is Ever AllKnowing, AllWise.

Q16:106 – Whoever disbelieves in Allah after his belief… except for one who is forced [to renounce his religion] while his heart is secure in faith. But those who [willingly] open their breasts to disbelief, upon them is wrath from Allah, and for them is a great punishment;

Q9:60 – Indeed, the charities are for the poor, and the needy, and those who work to collect them, and those whose hearts have been united, and to free the slaves, and those in debt, and in the cause of God, and the wayfarer. A duty from God, and God is Knowledgeable, Wise.

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 2, Book 26, Hadith 594
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet was asked, “Which is the best deed?” He said, “To believe in Allah and His Apostle.” He was then asked, “Which is the next (in goodness)?” He said, “To participate in Jihad in Allah’s Cause.” He was then asked, “Which is the next?” He said, “To perform Hajj-Mabrur.”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 52, Book 4, Hadith 41
Narrated Abdullah bin Masud: I asked Allah’s Apostle, “O Allah’s Apostle! What is the best deed?”…… He replied, “To participate in Jihad in Allah’s Cause.” I did not ask Allah’s Apostle anymore and if I had asked him more, he would have told me more.

Sahih Bukhari – Book 52, Hadith 43
Narrated `Aisha: (That she said), “O Allah’s Messenger! We consider Jihad as the best deed. Should we not fight in Allah’s Cause?” He said, “The best Jihad (for women) is Hajj-Mabrur (i.e. Hajj which is done according to the Prophet’s tradition and is accepted by Allah).

Sahih Muslim – Book 1, Hadith 149
Abu Dharr reported: I said: Messenger of Allah, which of the deeds is the best? He (the Holy Prophet) replied: Belief in Allah and Jihad in His cause.

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 9, Book 90, Hadith 333
Narrated Al-A’raj: Abu Huraira said, Allah’s Messenger said, “By Him in Whose Hand my life is, I would love to fight in Allah’s Cause and then get martyred and then resurrected (come to life) and then get martyred and then resurrected (come to life) and then get martyred, and then resurrected (come to life) and then get martyred and then resurrected (come to life).” Abu Huraira used to repeat those words three times and I testify to it with Allah’s Oath.

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 4, Book 52, Hadith 46
Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “The example of a Mujahid in Allah’s Cause– and Allah knows better who really strives in His Cause—-is like a person who fasts and prays continuously. Allah guarantees that He will admit the Mujahid in His Cause into Paradise if he is killed, otherwise He will return him to his home safely with rewards and war booty.”

Sahih Muslim – Book 20, Hadith 4635
It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik (through a different chain of transmitters) that the Messenger of Allah said: Nobody who enters Paradise will (ever like to) return to this world even if he were offered everything on the surface of the earth (as an inducement) except the martyr who will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him.

Sahih Muslim – Book 20, Hadith 4679
It has been reported on the authority of Bara!’ who stated: A man from Banu Nabit (one of the Ansar tribes) came to the Holy Prophet and said: I testify that there is no god except Allah and that thou art His bondman and Messenger. Then he went forward and fought until he was killed. The Holy Prophet said: He has done a little but shall be given a great reward.

Riyad as-Salihin – Book 12, Hadith 57
Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah said, “He who dies without having fought in the Cause of Allah or without having thought of doing so, will die with one characteristic of hypocrisy in him.” [Muslim].

Sunan Abu Dawud – Book 14, Hadith 2496
Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet as saying “He who dies without having fought or having felt fighting (against the infidels) to be his duty will die guilty of a kind of hypocrisy.”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 4, Book 52, Hadith 50
Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, “A single endeavor (of fighting) in Allah’s Cause in the forenoon or in the afternoon is better than the world and whatever is in it.”

Sunan an-Nasa’i – Book 24, Hadith 2625
It was narrated that abu Hurairah said: “A man asked the Prophet ‘O Messenger of Allah, which deed is best?’ He said: ‘Jihad in the cause of Allah.’ He said: ‘Then what?’ He said: ‘then Hajj Al-Mabrir.”’

Sunan Ibn Majah – Book 24, Hadith 2794
It was narrated that ‘Amr bin ‘Abasah said: “I came to the Prophet and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, which Jihad is best?’ He said: ‘(That of a man) whose blood is shed and his horse is wounded.’”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 4, Book 52, Hadith 73
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Abi Aufa: Allah’s Apostle said, “Know that Paradise is under the shades of swords.”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 4, Book 52, Hadith 72
Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, “Nobody who enters Paradise likes to go back to the world even if he got everything on the earth, except a Mujahid who wishes to return to the world so that he may be martyred ten times because of the dignity he receives (from Allah).”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 4, Book 52, Hadith 248
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr: A man came to the Prophet asking his permission to take part in Jihad. The Prophet asked him, “Are your parents alive?” He replied in the affirmative. The Prophet said to him, “Then exert yourself in their service.”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 9, Book 93, Hadith 555
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Messenger said, “Allah guarantees (the person who carries out Jihad in His Cause and nothing compelled him to go out but Jihad in His Cause and the belief in His Word) that He will either admit him into Paradise (Martyrdom) or return him with reward or booty he has earned to his residence from where he went out.”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 6, Book 60, Hadith 117
Narrated Al-Bara: When the Verse: “Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home)” (4.95) was revealed, Allah Apostle called for Zaid who wrote it. In the meantime Ibn Um Maktum came and complained of his blindness, so Allah revealed: “Except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame…” etc.) (4.95)

Sunan Abu Dawud – Book 14, Hadith 2501 – Same Hadith
Jami’ at-Tirmidhi – Book 44, Hadith 3031 – Same Hadith

Sunan an-Nasa’i – Book 25, Hadith 3104
It was narrated that Al-Bara’ said: “When the following was revealed: ‘Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home),’ [1] Ibn Umm Maktum, who was blind, came and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, what about me? I am blind.’ He said: ‘He did not leave before the following was revealed: Except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame).'” [2] [1] An-Nisa’ 4:95. [2] An-Nisa’ 4:95.

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 1, Book 2, Hadith 11
Narrated Abu Musa: Some people asked Allah’s Messenger, “Whose Islam is the best? i.e. (Who is a very good Muslim)?” He replied, “One who avoids harming the Muslims with his tongue and hands.”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 1, Book 2, Hadith 32
Narrated Al-Ahnaf bin Qais: While I was going to help this man (Ali Ibn Abi Talib), Abu Bakra met me and asked, “Where are you going?” I replied, “I am going to help that person.” He said, “Go back for I have heard Allah’s Messenger saying, ‘When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered will go to the Hell-fire.’ I said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! It is all right for the murderer but what about the murdered one?’ Allah’s Messenger replied, “He surely had the intention to kill his companion.”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 3, Book 48, Hadith 832
Narrated Ibn `Umar: Allah’s Messenger called me to present myself in front of him or the eve of the battle of Uhud, while I was fourteen years of age at that time, and he did not allow me to take part in that battle, but he called me in front of him on the eve of the battle of the Trench when I was fifteen years old, and he allowed me (to join the battle).” Nafi` said, “I went to `Umar bin `Abdul `Aziz who was Caliph at that time and related the above narration to him, He said, “This age (fifteen) is the limit between childhood and manhood,” and wrote to his governors to give salaries to those who reached the age of fifteen.

Sahih Muslim – Book 20, Hadith 4605
It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar who said: The Messenger of Allah inspected me on the battlefield on the Day of Uhud, and I was fourteen years old. He did not allow me (to take part in the fight). He inspected me on the Day of Khandaq and I was fifteen yearsold, and he permitted me (to fight), Nafi’ said: I came to ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz who was then Caliph, and narrated this tradition to him. He said: Surely, this is the demarcation between a minor and a major. So he wrote to his governors that they should pay subsistence allowance to one who was fifteen years old, but should treat those of lesser age among children.

Sahih Muslim Book 19, Hadith 4294
It has been reported from Sulaiman b. Buraid through his father that when the Messenger of Allah appointed anyone as leader of an army or detachment he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and to be good to the Muslims who were with him. He would say: Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy war, do not embezzle the spoils; do not break your pledge; and do not mutilate (the dead) bodies; do not kill the children. When you meet your enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and withold yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muhairs and inform them that, if they do so, they shall have all the privileges and obligations of the Muhajirs. If they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will have the status of Bedouin Muilims and will be subjected to the Commands of Allah like other Muslims, but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fai’ except when they actually fight with the Muslims (against the disbelievers). If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah’s help and fight them. When you lay siege to a fort and the besieged appeal to you for protection in the name of Allah and His Prophet, do not accord to them the guarantee of Allah and His Prophet, but accord to them your own guarantee and the guarantee of your companions for it is a lesser sin that the security given by you or your companions be disregarded than that the security granted in the name of Allah and His Prophet be violated When you besiege a fort and the besieged want you to let them out in accordance with Allah’s Command, do not let them come out in accordance with His Command, but do so at your (own) command, for you do not know whether or not you will be able to carry out Allah’s behest with regard to them.

Sunan Abu Dawud – Book 39, Hadith 4392 – Same Hadith
Jami’ at-Tirmidhi – Book 21, Hadith 1711 – Same Hadith
Sunan an-Nasa’i – Book 27, Hadith 3461 – Same Hadith
Sunan Ibn Majah – Book 20, Hadith 2640 – Same Hadith

Fatwa 107166
Democratic system is contrary to Islam and approving of it and participating in it are actions that imply apostasy and being beyond the pale of Islam.
http://islamqa.info/en/107166

Muslims in the West regularly refer to Islam as the “religion of peace”, yet this religion of peace is responsible for over 90% of all fighting presently in the world. The vast majority of world terrorism, violence and war is religiously motivated by Islam.

 

Offensive Jihad

Sahih Muslim – Book 1, Hadith 293
Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported: I heard the Messenger of Allah say: A section of my people will not cease fighting for the Truth and will prevail till the Day of Resurrection. He said: Jesus son of Mary would then descend and their (Muslims’) commander would invite him to come and lead them in prayer, but he would say: No, some amongst you are commanders over some (amongst you). This is the honour from Allah for this Ummah.

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 5, Book 59, Hadith 285 & Volume 5, Book 59, Hadith 686
Narrated Abu ‘Is-haq: Once, while I was sitting beside Zaid bin Al-Arqam, he was asked, “How many Ghazwat did the Prophet undertake?” Zaid replied, “Nineteen.” They said, “In how many Ghazwat did you join him?” He replied, “Seventeen.” I asked, “Which of these was the first?” He replied, “Al-`Ashira or Al- `Ashiru.”

Sahih Muslim – Book 19, Hadith 4464
It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Ishaq that ‘Abdullah b. Yazid went (out of the city) with people for offering” Istisqa” ‘ prayer (for rainfall). He offered two rak’ahs. Then he prayed for rain. That day I met Zaid b. Arqam. There was only one man between me and him (at that time). I asked him:
How many military expeditions did the Messenger of Allah undertake? He said: Nineteen expeditions. I asked him: On how many expeditions did you accompany him? He said: On seventeen expeditions. I asked: Which was the first expedition he led? He answered: Dhat-ul-, Usair or ‘Ushair.

Sahih Muslim – Book 19, Hadith 4467
It has been narrated on the authority of Buraida (who heard the tradition from his father) that the Messenger of Allah conducted nineteen military campaigns and he (actually) fought in eight of them.

Sahih Muslim – Book 19, Hadith 4468
It has been narrated by Buraida who heard it from his father that he joined the Messenger of Allah in sixteen military campaigns.

Sahih Bukhari – Book 53, Hadith 386
Narrated Jubair bin Haiya:`Umar sent the Muslims to the great countries to fight the pagans. When Al-Hurmuzan embraced Islam, `Umar said to him. “I would like to consult you regarding these countries which I intend to invade.” Al-Hurmuzan said, “Yes, the example of these countries and their inhabitants who are the enemies. of the Muslims, is like a bird with a head, two wings and two legs; If one of its wings got broken, it would get up over its two legs, with one wing and the head; and if the other wing got broken, it would get up with two legs and a head, but if its head got destroyed, then the two legs, two wings and the head would become useless. The head stands for Khosrau, and one wing stands for Caesar and the other wing stands for Faris. So, order the Muslims to go towards Khosrau.” So, `Umar sent us (to Khosrau) appointing An-Nu`man bin Muqrin as our commander. When we reached the land of the enemy, the representative of Khosrau came out with forty-thousand warriors, and an interpreter got up saying, “Let one of you talk to me!” Al-Mughira replied, “Ask whatever you wish.” The other asked, “Who are you?” Al-Mughira replied, “We are some people from the Arabs; we led a hard, miserable, disastrous life: we used to suck the hides and the date stones from hunger; we used to wear clothes made up of fur of camels and hair of goats, and to worship trees and stones. While we were in this state, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earths, Elevated is His Remembrance and Majestic is His Highness, sent to us from among ourselves a Prophet whose father and mother are known to us. Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord, has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah Alone or give Jizya (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet has informed us that our Lord says: – “Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen, and whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master.” (Al-Mughira, then blamed An-Nu`man for delaying the attack and) An-Nu’ man said to Al-Mughira, “If you had participated in a similar battle, in the company of Allah’s Messenger he would not have blamed you for waiting, nor would he have disgraced you. But I accompanied Allah’s Apostle in many battles and it was his custom that if he did not fight early by daytime, he would wait till the wind had started blowing and the time for the prayer was due (i.e. after midday).

Jami’ at-Tirmidhi – Book 19, Hadith 1548
Narrated Abu Al-Bakhtari: “An Army from the armies of the Muslims, whose commander was Salman Al-Farisi, besieged one of the Persian castles. They said: ‘O Abu ‘Abdullah! Should we charge them?’ He said: ‘Leave me to call them (to Islam) as I heard the Messenger of Allah call them.’ So Salman went to them and said: ‘I am only a man from among you, a Persian, and you see that the Arabs obey me. If you become Muslims then you will have the likes of what we have, and from you will be required that which is required from us. If you refuse, and keep your religion, then we will leave you to it, and you will give us the Jizyah from your hands while you are submissive.’ He said to them in Persian: ‘And you are other than praiseworthy and if you refuse then we will equally resist you.’ They said: ‘We will not give you the Jizyah, we will fight you instead.’ So they said: ‘O Abu ‘Abdullah! Should we charge them?’ He said: ‘No.'” He said: “So for three days he called them to the same (things), and then he said: ‘Charge them.'” He said: “So we charged them, and we conquered the castle.”

Sahih Muslim – Book 19, Hadith 4294
It has been reported from Sulaiman b. Buraid through his father that when the Messenger of Allah appointed anyone as leader of an army or detachment he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and to be good to the Muslims who were with him. He would say: Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy war, do not embezzle the spoils; do not break your pledge; and do not mutilate (the dead) bodies; do not kill the children.

Jami’ at-Tirmidhi – Book 14, Hadith 1408 & Book 19, Hadith 1617
Narrated Buraidah: from his father who said: “Whenever the Messenger of Allah dispatched a commander of an army he would exhort him personally; that he should have Taqwa of Allah, and regarding those of the Muslims who are with him; that he should be good to them. He would say: ‘Fight in the Name of Allah and in Allah’s curse. Fight those who disbelieve in Allah and fight, do not be treacherous, nor mutilate, nor kill a child.”

Sunan Ibn Majah – Book 24, Hadith 2857
It was narrated that Safwan bin ‘Assil said: “The Messenger of Allah sent us in a military detachment and said: ‘Go in the Name of Allah, and in the cause of Allah. Fight those who disbelieve in Allah. Do not mutilate, do not be treacherous, do not steal from the spoils of war, and do not kill children.’”

Muwatta Malik – Book 21, Hadith 11
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz wrote to one of his governors, “It has been passed down to us that when the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent out a raiding party, he would say to them, ‘Make your raids in the name of Allah in the way of Allah. Fight whoever denies Allah. Do not steal from the booty, and do not act treacherously. Do not mutilate and do not kill children.’ Say the same to your armies and raiding parties, Allah willing. Peace be upon you.”

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