1i. Are non-Muslims enemy?

Any capable non-Muslim is considered an enemy in Islam

In Islam, the world is divided into two territories: Dar al-Islam (land of Islam) and Dar al-Harb (land of war) also called Dar al-Kufr (land of disbelief). Jihad (holy war) must be waged against the land of disbelievers until it is dominated by Islam. This means America, Europe, Russia, China and other non-Muslim countries are enemies of Allah and Muslims.

Apart from women and children, any capable non-Muslim who doesn’t live under a covenant [not paying jizya] is a harbi (combatant [enemy]) who is life and property is licid to any Muslim. Jihad must be waged against these kafir-e harbi (combatant infidels) until they convert to Islam or pay jizya or die or be enslaved.

-Lives of Jews and Christians are protected only if they pay Jizya (tax). If they don’t pay? They get killed.
Qur’an 9:29Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah (Protection tax) with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

-A non-Muslim’s life is saved when they convert to Islam then pray and pay charity. If they don’t convert?
Sahih Bukhari – Volume 1, Book 2, Hadith 25
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar: Allah’s Apostle said: “I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah.”

Sahih Muslim – Book 1, Hadith 30 & 33
It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah said: I have been commanded to fight against people so long as they do not declare that there is no god but Allah, and he who professed it [Islam] was guaranteed the protection of his property and life on my behalf except for the right affairs rest with Allah.

Sunan Abu Dawud – Book 14, Hadith 2634 & 2635
Abu Hurairah reported the Apostle of Allaah as saying “I am commanded to fight with men till they testify that there is no god but Allaah, when they do that they will keep their life and property safe from me, except what is due to them. (i.e., life and property) and their reckoning will be at Allaah’s hands.”

Jami’ at-Tirmidhi – Book 14, Hadith 1408
Narrated Buraidah: from his father who said: “Whenever the Messenger of Allah dispatched a commander of an army he would exhort him personally; that he should have Taqwa of Allah, and regarding those of the Muslims who are with him; that he should be good to them. He would say: ‘Fight in the Name of Allah and in Allah’s curse. Fight those who disbelieve in Allah and fight, do not be treacherous, nor mutilate, nor kill a child.”

Before fighting, Muslims need to follow few rules.
(a) They must invite the infidel harbi to embrace Islam. If they agree, then accept and cease the battle.
(b) If they refuse, then ask them to pay the jizyah, and if they agree, then accept it from them and cease the battle.
(c) If they refuse all this, then seek God’s help and battle with them and kill them.

Sahih Muslim – Book 19, Hadith 4294
When you meet your enemies who are polytheists [Christians…], invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and withhold yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them … If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah’s help and fight them”

According to the Muslim jurists, the harbi has no rights: his blood and his property being licit prey to any Muslim. According to the Middle East Media Research Institute – Famous Sunni Cleric Yusuf al-Qaradawi said:
“It has been determined by Islamic law that the blood and property of people of Dar Al-Harb [the Domain of Disbelief where the battle for the domination of Islam should be waged] is not protected. Because they fight against and are hostile towards the Muslims, they annulled the protection of his blood and his property.”

The main reason why Muslims in the world do not go around waging war against non-muslim countries is because concept of Dar Al-Islam implies the existence of a Khilafah (Caliphate). A caliphate is a form of Islamic government led by a caliph. Caliph is a person accepted to be a political and religious successor to the prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim community. Today, there is no Caliphate because the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished by the secularist Ataturk, founder of Turkey, in March 1924. Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman Empire. As a result there is no Dar Al-Islam and, consequently, no Dar Al-Harb. It is a religious obligation for Muslims to work towards re-establishing a caliphate.

Q2:30 – When your Lord said to the angels: ‘I am placing on the earth a caliph, ‘ they replied: ‘Will You put there who corrupts and sheds blood, when we exalt Your praises and sanctify You? ‘ He said: ‘I know what you do not know. ‘

In 2008, Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei issued a decree to act against Israel, which he called “an infidel that should be warred against” (Kafer-e-Harbi) because of the “slaughter of the Palestinian Muslims” and the “plunder of Islamic lands”. He stated: “All Palestinian fighters and all believers in the Islamic world must help the defenseless [Palestinian] women, children, and people in Gaza. Anyone who dies in this legitimate and sacred defense is a shahid [martyr].”

Dr. Sheikh ‘Ali Gum’a, Egyptian Mufti, 2003
When asked “Is it permitted to kill an Israeli traveling outside the borders of his land?” Sheikh ‘Ali Gum’a replied:

“Yes, it is permitted to kill him, because he is a Harbi and the Harbi spreads corruption throughout the face of the earth.”

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