1F. Forced Conversion

Forced Conversion in Islam

48:16-17 – Say to those of the dwellers of the desert who stayed behind: “Soon you will be called (to fight) against a people of great military power, then either you will fight against them or they will submit to God and become Muslims. If you obey, God will grant you a handsome reward, but if you turn away as you turned away before, He will punish you with a painful punishment. There is no blame on the blind nor any blame on the lame nor any blame on the sick (for staying away from a war in God’s cause). Whoever obeys God and His Messenger (in the religious duties he is charged with and can carry out), God will admit him into Gardens through which rivers flow. But whoever turns away, He will punish him with a painful punishment.

Q2:193 “And fight them until persecution is no more, and religion be only for Allah. But if they desist, then let there be no hostility except against wrong-doers.”

Q2:190-193 “Fight in the cause of God those who fight you … And slay them wherever ye catch them … And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression and there prevail justice and faith in God …”

Q8:39 “And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allah), then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do.”

Q9:29 “Fight those from among the People of the Book who believe neither in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor hold as unlawful what God and His Messenger have declared to be unlawful, nor follow the true religion, until they pay the tax willingly and agree to submit.”

Q9:5 “So when the sacred months have passed away, then slay the idolaters wherever you find them, and take them captives and besiege them and lie in wait for them in every ambush, then if they repent and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, leave their way free to them; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.”

-Abrogated by 9:5, 9:29 – Al-Tabari, Ibn Kathir …
Q2:256 “There is no compulsion in religion. True guidance has been made clearly distinct from error. Therefore, whoever renounces ‘Taghut’ (forces of Satan) and believes in Allah has grasped the firm hand-hold that will never break. Allah, Whose hand-hold you have grasped, hears all and knows all.

Sunan Abu Dawud – Book 14, Hadith 2676
When the children of a woman (in pre-Islamic days) did not survive, she took a vow on herself that if her child survives, she would convert it a Jew. When Banu an-Nadir were expelled (from Arabia), there were some children of the Ansar (Helpers) among them. They said: We shall not leave our children. So Allah the Exalted revealed; “Let there be no compulsion in religion. Truth stands out clear from error.”
Abu Dawud said: Muqlat means a woman whose children do not survive.

So, the reason for this revelation is that when the Banu an-Nadir Jews were expelled from Arabia, they didn’t want to leave their children behind and didn’t want convert to Islam for which the prophet reveals that “Let there be no compulsion in religion. Truth stands out clear from error”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 4, Book 53, Hadith 392
Narrated Abu Huraira: While we were in the Mosque, the Prophet came out and said, “Let us go to the Jews” We went out till we reached Bait-ul-Midras. He said to them, “If you embrace Islam, you will be safe. You should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle, and I want to expel you from this land. So, if anyone amongst you owns some property, he is permitted to sell it, otherwise you should know that the Earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle.”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 9, Book 92, Hadith 447
Narrated Abu Huraira: While we were in the mosque, Allah’s Messenger came out and said, “Let us proceed to the Jews.” So we went out with him till we came to Bait-al-Midras. The Prophet stood up there and called them, saying, “O assembly of Jews! Surrender to Allah (embrace Islam) and you will be safe!” They said, “You have conveyed Allah’s message, O Aba-al-Qasim” Allah’s Messenger then said to them, “That is what I want; embrace Islam and you will be safe.” They said, “You have conveyed the message, O Aba-al- Qasim.” Allah’s Messenger then said to them, “That is what I want,” and repeated his words for the third time and added, “Know that the earth is for Allah and I want to exile you from this land, so whoever among you has property he should sell it, otherwise, know that the land is for Allah and His Apostle.”

Sunan Abu Dawud – Book 19, Hadith 3038
Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: A man belonging to Usbadhiyin of the people of Bahrayn, who were the Magians of Hajar, came to the Apostle of Allah and remained with him (for some time), and then came out. I asked him: What have Allah and His Apostle of Allah decided for you? He replied: Evil. I said: Silent. He said: Islam or killing. AbdurRahman ibn Awf said: He accepted jizyah from them. Ibn Abbas said: The people followed the statement of AbdurRahman ibn Awf, and they left that which I heard from the Usbadhi.

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 1, Book 8, Hadith 387
Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah’s Apostle said, “I have been ordered to fight the people till they say: ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.‘ And if they say so, pray like our prayers…”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 1, Book 2, Hadith 25
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar: Allah’s Apostle said: “I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah.”

Sahih Bukhari – Book 53, Hadith 392
While we were in the Mosque, the Prophet came out and said, “Let us go to the Jews” We went out till we reached Bait-ul-Midras. He said to them, “If you embrace Islam, you will be safe. You should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle, and I want to expel you from this land. So, if anyone amongst you owns some property, he is permitted to sell it, otherwise you should know that the Earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle.

Sunan Ibn Majah – Book 36, Hadith 3929
‘Amr bin Aws narrated that his father, Aws, told him: “We were sitting with the Prophet and he was narrating to us and reminding us, when a man came and spoke privately to him. He said: ‘Take him away and kill him.’ When the man turned away, the Messenger of Allah called him back and said: ‘Do you bear witness that none has the right to be worshiped but Allah?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ He said: ‘Then go and let him go, for I have been commanded to fight the people until they say: La ilaha illallah, then if they do that, their blood and wealth are forbidden to me.’”

Tafsir of Ibn Kathir, Al-Firdous Ltd., First Edition, Part 3, Pages 37-38
But, this verse (Q2:256) is abrogated by the verse of “fighting…Therefore, all people of the world should be called to Islam. If anyone of them refuses to do so, or refuses to pay the Jizya they should be fought till they are killed.

Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 959
Then the apostle sent Khalid bin Walid… to the Banu al-Harith and ordered him to invite them to Islam three days before he attacked them. If they accepted then he was to accept it from them, and if they declined he was to fight them. So Khalid set out and came to them, and sent out riders in all directions inviting the people to Islam, saying, “If you accept Islam you will be safe.” So the men accepted Islam as they were invited.

Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 814
[Muhammad] said, “Woe to you, Abu Sufyan, isn’t it time that you recognize that I am Allah’s apostle?” He (Abu Sufyan) answered, “As to that I still have some doubt.” I (the narrator) said to him, “Submit and testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the apostle of Allah before you lose your head,” so he did so.

Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 879
The apostle told them to tell Malik that if he came to him as a Muslim he would return his family and property to him and give him a hundred camels.

 

Fight people till they convert to Islam

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 1, Book 8, Hadith 387
Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah’s Apostle said, “I have been ordered to fight the people till they say: ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.’ And if they say so, pray like our prayers…”

Sahih Bukhari – Volume 1, Book 2, Hadith 25
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar: Allah’s Apostle said: “I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah.”

Sahih Muslim – Book 1, Hadith 30 & 33
It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah said: I have been commanded to fight against people so long as they do not declare that there is no god but Allah, and he who professed it was guaranteed the protection of his property and life on my behalf except for the right affairs rest with Allah.

Sunan Abu Dawud – Book 14, Hadith 2634 & 2635
Abu Hurairah reported the Apostle of Allaah as saying “I am commanded to fight with men till they testify that there is no god but Allaah, when they do that they will keep their life and property safe from me, except what is due to them. (i.e., life and property) and their reckoning will be at Allaah’s hands.”

Jami’ at-Tirmidhi – Book 14, Hadith 1408
Narrated Buraidah: from his father who said: “Whenever the Messenger of Allah dispatched a commander of an army he would exhort him personally; that he should have Taqwa of Allah, and regarding those of the Muslims who are with him; that he should be good to them. He would say: ‘Fight in the Name of Allah and in Allah’s curse. Fight those who disbelieve in Allah and fight, do not be treacherous, nor mutilate, nor kill a child.”

Sunan an-Nasa’i – Book 25, Hadith 3097
Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: “I have been commanded to fight the people until they say La ilaha illallah (there is non worthy or worship except Allah). Whoever says it, his life and his property are safe from me, except for its right, and his reckoning will be with Allah.”

Sunan Ibn Majah – Book 1, Hadith 71
It was narrated that Abu Hurairah said: “The Messenger of Allah said: ‘I have been commanded to fight the people until they testify to La ilaha ill-allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah) and that I am the Messenger of Allah, and establish regular prayers and pay Zakat.'”

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